Senior fellow for Middle Eastern studies at the Council on Foreign Relations in Washington D.C. Served as Special Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor under President George W. Bush and as Assistant Secretary of State under President Ronald Reagan. Member of the US Commission on International Religious Freedom and the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council. He teaches U.S. foreign policy at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service. He is the author of five books: Undue Process (1993), Security and Sacrifice (1995), Faith or Fear: How Jews Can Survive in a Christian America (1997), Tested by Zion: the Bush Administration and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (2013), and Realism and Democracy: American Foreign Policy After the Arab Spring (2017). He also writes extensively on foreign policy, especially with regard to the Middle East, and on the subjects of democracy and human rights.